When you think of Hanoi veganism is probably not something which springs to mind. In fact, it’s probably quite the opposite. From Vietnamese friends and buddies who had travelled the area I knew that the local cuisine was quite ‘open minded’… to put it one way. Type into google ‘Vietnamese food’ and you’ll see an unbelievable array unidentifiable meats, some which many would consider pets. From an outsider’s point of view it definitely DIDN’T seem like a vegan friendly nation. We wanted to find out first hand and after one year of living in Hanoi we can safely say it’s not what we expected. Keep reading to find out what we discovered after our vegan year in Hanoi…

What Two Vegans Learned After a Year Living in Hanoi

As two English teachers we were working in Melaka, Malaysia and looking for new positions. Every job search online would show 10 results for Malaysia and about 50 results for Vietnam. After weeks of searching the answer seemed obvious. We knew Vietnam’s culinary reputation but we weren’t going to judge a book by it’s cover. We’ve always set out to prove that vegans can live or travel any corner of the world happily and healthily. So, we jumped in at the deep end. Within a week we had online interviews, jobs offered, visas confirmed and flights booked – we were moving to Hanoi! For two vegans with rigid morals it was time to see if the Vietnam really did live up to it’s notoriety!

What Two Vegans Learned After a Year Living in Hanoi
We landed!

We landed and wow, what a change from sleepy Melaka! Hanoi was fast paced, in your face and exhilarating. In a country that is trying to develop so quickly it was amazing to see how much they still hold on to their traditional culture. Plus, one of my favourite aspects of any country – food was high up on their priorities list! We walked through the Old Quarter on our first day and were blown away. Hundreds of bustling eateries spilled out of the shops onto low plastic tables and chairs on the streets. Every one of them filled with people, different foods, different colours and different smells. All being washed down with lots of beer – this place was exciting!

What Two Vegans Learned After a Year Living in Hanoi
Al fresco dining (predominately boozing)

After our vegan year in Hanoi we can confirm that the rumours we’d heard were true… and false. Vietnamese cuisine did include almost every meat imaginable and the concept of a full-time veggie or vegan lifestyle was almost unheard of…


We realised that after a little getting used to things Hanoi could be a haven to the ethical eater. With more vegan restaurants and dishes than you’ll have time to try, once we knew what to look for and where to look we were spoilt for choice. Hanoi, however, is a double edged sword and it soon became our best and worst vegan destination. 

So, here are some of the things we learnt after our year in Hanoi…

There is vegan food everywhere!

The 75 places Happy Cow lists in Hanoi are only scratching the surface. We were surprised to find veggie places dotted around every street corner, varying from street food vendors to formal restaurants. The Vietnamese word for vegetarian, ‘ăn chay’, could easily be found above restaurants or stalls with little searching. This makes picking places out nice and easy when your looking for some vegan munch. Each week we would pin a handful of new places on our map and spend our free time nipping from place to place.

What Two Vegans Learned After a Year Living in Hanoi
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Eat Good, Feel Good

The food itself is unbelievable, really it is incredibly good! The food in veggie places was just the same as meat versions, just veggie. To do this, tofu is cooked in a variety of ways and we found an astonishing variety of mock meat options. We were blown away when we saw you could buy whole vegan chickens and fish. Whilst some people aren’t fans of lots of vegan meats it definitely had it’s positives in Vietnam.

Looking for vegan restaurants in Hanoi?

We didn’t miss out on the local foods and still explored the culinary culture in an ethical way. There was a crazy variety of soups and the speciality Phở and also a huge amount of different veggies which they beautifully fry, boil or cook into other dishes. Our favourite was rau muống (water spinach) which we ate every single day, really, every day.

On the whole we found Vietnamese food very healthy because of all the vegetables. Veggies had a much bigger share of the plate (or bowl) than most other countries we’ve visited, particularly in Europe. The food was fresh and often cooked to order, with a beautiful mix of herbs and seasoning. What’s more it was about £1-1.50 for a filling meal.

What Two Vegans Learned After a Year Living in Hanoi

What Two Vegans Learned After a Year Living in Hanoi

It’s Always a Good Time for a Buffet

After just a week of living in Hanoi we noticed that many of the veggie places were buffets. If you’re like us and have bottomless appetites then you’ll be in your element. There was a big variety of veggie buffets ranging from spit and sawdust eateries to swanky joints. Our favourite was definitely Cơm chay Diệu Tâm, a casual lunch time spot where you can have takeaway boxes for on the go lunch. We also loved Chay An Lac, a formal multi-storey restaurant with a blistering amount of traditional dishes, soups and desserts.

What Two Vegans Learned After a Year Living in Hanoi
An Lac, one of our favourite vegan buffets in Hanoi

Veggie or Vegan?

Of all the ‘ăn chay’ restaurants, the majority we found were 100% vegan. If you found something labelled as vegetarian it’s was still commonly vegan as dairy is rarely used in Vietnamese cooking, even in normal eateries. A lot of the street food stalls sold just one or two dishes however almost every restaurant, cheap or expensive, had a selection of vegetable and tofu side dishes. Two veg, some tofu and a bowl of rice was easy to order in almost any place. We ate A LOT of tofu!

What Two Vegans Learned After a Year Living in Hanoi
Two veg and tofu please!

All Praise the Veggie Days

As a predominately Buddhist country most of the followers are still meat eaters but for two days a month (1st & 15th of the Lunar calendar) people eat ‘ăn chay’. This meant a whole number of normally meaty eateries would make vegetarian food! Even better, a lot of veggie places would have banquets of traditional foods to try, with the crowds of locals who flock to them. They got incredibly busy though, so we got used to some pushing and elbowing!

What Two Vegans Learned After a Year Living in Hanoi
Our tofu lady!

Green Groceries

Doing our weekly food shop was very, very easy because of the Buddhist community and the amount of vegetables in the local food. Dotted all around the city were street markets selling every fruit and vegetable you’ve ever seen, along with a dozen you’ve never seen. Rice, noodles, tofu and all other ingredients could be found within a 5 minute walk from our flat. A 5 minute drive on the scooter and we had supermarkets filled with veggie products and veggie shops with crazy varieties of mock meats.

What Two Vegans Learned After a Year Living in Hanoi
What Two Vegans Learned After a Year Living in Hanoi

Drive By Veg!

Besides the brilliant street markets and supermarkets which stock all your veggie needs, Hanoi has thousands of characters who sell a whole manner of things from their bicycle. These tended to be from middle aged women. Normally they would start off quite grumpy and then you’d squeeze a smile out of them, hopefully. It was luck of the draw what they would be selling and you had to haggle hard but it was definitely part of the Hanoi vegan experience.

What Two Vegans Learned After a Year Living in Hanoi

All in One Word

ăn chay

Living in Hanoi, most of the problems we had came down to language barriers. Unless you’re in touristy areas or speaking with university students very little English is spoken. Fortunately ‘ăn chay’ is a saving grace and you’ll see this plastered over most veggie restaurants. Whilst the pronunciation takes a bit of practice, saying this when searching for grub will quickly distinguish whether they can offer you any food. This will normally lead to lots of pointing at dishes on the menu and an excited Vietnamese person smiling an saying ‘ăn chay, ăn chay, ăn chay!’

Super cheap fruit and veg from the local market, Hanoi


There’s always a but

And this is quite a big but.

There is no way to sugar coat it, thin skinned ethical eaters should approach Vietnam with caution. Whilst there is an abundance of delicious veggie options, outside of the Buddhist temples and veggie restaurants it’s a very different story. This can all be a very grim and shocking sight for animal lovers and people not familiar with the culture. I would drive to work through streets which specialised in dog meat displayed in the windows and our local market would be red from freshly killed birds, fish and variety of other things. Some restaurants looked like pet shop aquariums and others resembled pick-your-meat butchers. Vietnam is not for the squeamish. We met many avid meat eaters who were put off by all the meats displayed in shops and on the street. Though I had been warned by friends, I was still shocked throughout my stay and at many points questioned whether a vegan should be living in Hanoi.

What Two Vegans Learned After a Year Living in Hanoi
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Vegan Problems

The culture of meatiness caused us a few immediate problems. Outside of veggie establishments, If you’re not a fan of vegetables, tofu or rice then you’re gunna struggle. We love it, so it was fine. Hanoi does have international vegan options, vegan pizzas and even vegan KFC, but we didn’t go to Vietnam to eat pizza did we!

What Two Vegans Learned After a Year Living in Hanoi
30,000 VND set meal, yes please!

Fish Sauce

We learnt that the Vietnamese love fish sauce. They use it in nearly all of their dishes, including things which you’d assume were veggie (vegetable sides, noodles, rice and tofu). We had to keep very vigilant when ordering food and we quickly learned enough Vietnamese to explain our dietary needs. If you’re a strict veggie or vegan I would definitely advise writing down or learning the phrases you need to keep your morals! Inside of veggie restaurants obviously you are fine but it’s a whole other world outside of them. Many eateries will call dishes vegetarian if they don’t contain large amounts of meat, even if it is cooked with meat stock or fish sauce.

I don’t eat meat/fish sauce – Tôi không ăn thịt/nước mắm
Learn it and make sure you get the pronunciation down!

A lot of times if someone didn’t understand us (our pronunciation is terrible) they would just smile and carry on. Write it down to be safe. Because of the Buddhist culture people understood very quickly the vegan/veggie requirements, the problem was the communication. The Vietnamese are pretty unforgiving when it comes to understanding travellers’ horrific accents so get practising. 

What Two Vegans Learned After a Year Living in Hanoi

Worlds Apart

The whole concept of animal welfare and consumption is extremely different to other parts of the world. This took some adjusting to. It was bizarre to us how a nation with such a huge variety of vegetarian options and Buddhist ethics could on the other hand consume without consideration. We found that there was a market for almost every imaginable animal product and that many would eat the same types of animals they would keep as pets.

What Two Vegans Learned After a Year Living in Hanoi
What Two Vegans Learned After a Year Living in Hanoi

No Naivety Here

Everything that is kept strictly behind closed doors in UK and many other places is done on the street without discretion. The Vietnamese know where meat comes from and it is often displayed and killed in shops or markets. As opposed to children in the UK who don’t realise their chicken nuggets used to be alive, in Vietnam they are very aware. Not only this but most people are prepared to kill or prepare their meat.

What Two Vegans Learned After a Year Living in Hanoi
Sarah does love a good papaya!

Leave No Trace

In Vietnam waste is not an issue. When an animal is killed generally ALL of the animal is consumed. Literally, every bit will be eaten or have some use.

What Two Vegans Learned After a Year Living in Hanoi
What Two Vegans Learned After a Year Living in Hanoi

The Smaller the Better?

Over 85% of Vietnam’s meat is produced on small scale farms and we really noticed that the supermarkets were a lot less busy than the small markets. Of the farms we saw, they were relatively small, open and had animals roaming, producing enough meat for the family and bit extra to sell.

Meat is Meat

A common discussion, debate and argument we had and often overheard was about dog meat. The older generations saw dog meat the same as any other meat, although it is generally eaten on special occasions. It was clear to see that opinions are changing and younger generations were less likely to follow their elders. Whether this was a change in morals or influenced by international media, it was hard to tell.

What Two Vegans Learned After a Year Living in Hanoi
Those pineapples were so sweet!

More Than Just Dogs

It took very little time to realise that dogs were not the only controversial issue. You didn’t have to travel far to see endangered or protected animals being sold or consumed. We also learned Vietnam has one of the biggest trades of illegal wildlife products.

What Two Vegans Learned After a Year Living in Hanoi

Lasting Thoughts

The first few months spent in Hanoi were pretty shocking. We are well travelled but we had never seen the quantity and variety of meat displayed and killed in the streets. The first time we saw dog, cat or any exotic animal meat my immediate reaction was that it was completely wrong and we should do something to stop it.

In my opinion, where possible, we should ALL strive for a life free from animal products. There is no excuse or reasoning for Vietnam’s supply and demand for illegal and endangered wildlife trade but is killing dogs for food any worse than chickens? Is one animals life more valuable than others?

Want some Vietnam travel inspiration?

At a glance the Vietnamese meat industry can be seen as brutal and cruel. Whilst this can be true of all meat industries, in Vietnam it is slightly more complex. Once the initial shock subsided I did some research. I discovered that the amount of meat consumed per person in Vietnam is nearly half that of USA, Australia, Argentina and Israel. I saw more animals killed in my year in Hanoi than a lifetime in other countries but these animals have probably come from small family run farms. The conditions I saw were much more favourable than battery farms. The majority of Vietnamese are aware of where their meat comes from, they do not waste any of the meat and are prepared to kill the animal by hand. Is this an excuse for consumption? Does this make you question which meat industry is worse?

Looking Back

Every culture is different. What might seem normal on one side of the world could seem alien on the other. One of the beauties of travelling surely is experiencing other ways of life? Whilst this is true, there are certain things that are universal, and in my opinion animal welfare is one of those.

Many friends and family have asked how an animal activist could live somewhere like Vietnam. My response is always that not living or visiting a country will not change it’s practices. In fact quite the opposite. If you want to change something then you need to address it. Hanoi gave us more pride and determination with our vegan lifestyle than ever before. It made us all the more aware of what is going on around the world. We know that through conversations and rants we changed some opinions and hopefully saved some animals’ lives. If every vegan travelling abroad can convert one person then it’s a good start!

Should you go? Definitely. The world will never progress if opinions of animal welfare aren’t challenged. Is the meat industry in Vietnam worse than others? You will have to go and decide for yourself!

Have you been to Hanoi? What did you think of the food culture? Let us know if the comments box!

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14 Responses

  • An excellent article thank you. My brother has just married a lovely Vietnamese lady and they are having a ceremony in Vietnam next year. I will definitely write down the sentences you suggest when we travel around.

    • Hey Amy, great that the article can be of help! Also great that you’re going to Vietnam, it’s a fascinating country! Which part will you be travelling to? If you’re thinking of travelling around it would be really useful to learn some of the phrases I mentioned in the post!

      I’m currently writing an article about how important I think learning the local language is for a travelling vegan! Really helps you explore the local food without the worry of consuming any animal products.

      If you sign up to our newsletter we can let you know when we put our next Vietnam post up!

  • Hi Veggie Vagabonds,

    I saw you tweeting about travel and I thought I’d check out your website. I really like it. Looks like Veggie Vagabonds has come a long way!

    Have you thought of building a mailing list? I think people would really like to be signed up to what you have to share.

    Good job on the social buttons, social media is so powerful these days

    Good job with the Yoast plugin SEO is so important these days.

    Also places like supa growth make free software for websites like yours, be worth checking out.


    Keep making great stuff!

    • Hey Jerome! Really glad you like the site and we’re really appreciative of the feedback.

      We currently have the newsletter signup form in the post side bar, so we’d love it if you’d sign up so we can keep in touch. We’re working on making it more visible on the homepage too.

      Out of interest, where did you hear about the site?


    • Hey Isabella, really glad you like it. We’ll have a more coming up about our experiences as vegans in other Asian countries! Your site’s looking great, really liking the ‘vegan passport’!

  • Great article! Am a recent-ish vegetarian turned vegan with roots in VN and looking to return once I graduate. Mildly worried about the vegan scene over there. Appreciate the website! Would love to see an article about an ethical, affordable, stylish wardrobe.

    • You shouldn’t be worried going back. In terms of food choice, then you’ll be amazed how much there is on offer. In terms of animal welfare….well that’s a different matter. Send us an email if you want any advice about going back, where abouts in Vietnam will you be going to?

  • Thanks for the great post,

    It is amazing what a country like this consumes in the way of what would normally be called a balanced diet.

    Thanks for the stats.

    Cheers Penny…

  • I appreciated reading that thanks.
    I only spent 10 days in Hanoi last month.
    And you know I think I was protected from seeing much of what you mention. I’ve lived in Bangkok and so tire of the constant smell of meat cooking in the Bangkok streets.
    Well I maybe just booked my Airbnb in the right area and didn’t move around to far from it but I hardly even smelled much street cooking. And I was sad that I couldn’t find one veggie market but you’ve made me a bit happier about that now :))
    I didn’t see one animal slaughtered or just after slaughter
    I guess we see what we need to see.
    My Airbnb was in the French quarter I think. Almost opposite Uudam Chay which is probably the most expensive Vegetarian restaurant in Hanoi. They even use cheese in some preparations. Well it was hard to resist such a nice restaurant where most preps were vegan so I ate there a few times and got grab bikes around to a few more restaurants and cafes. Only found one supermarket even and it was small and uninteresting.
    I think I need a map of where the veggie markets are if I go there again.
    All in all I was living a vegan dream in Hanoi because the fruit was so amazing and also cheap. Especially love the giant avocados. I’d go out in the mornings to track down those dear ladies with their fruit bikes. I watched a video of interviews with them at the Vietnamese women’s museum and they have difficult lives. Leaving their children in the villages and only visiting every 2 weeks.
    And staying in rooms in Hanoi with 10 other women. Working from 4am going to the market to buy the fruits, or flowers.
    If I’d see any still on the streets at night not having sold all their fruit I’d buy from them even if I didn’t really need it. Just so they could go home to rest and eat.
    So it’s interesting to hear your experience and I’m glad mine was so sheltered from the slaughter. The benefits of being a tourist I guess 🙂

    • Hey Anjali, firstly sorry for the slow reply, we’re normally on top of responding but your message slipped through. In some ways it’s probably nicer that you were protected from seeing it, there were some really shocking sights. It’s a shame you didn’t find any of the veggie markets, because we were living there and had our own kitchen we made sure to find them nice and quickly so we could make some vegan feasts in the kitchen! Are you still living in Bangkok? There’s a great vegan community there and I think if you can avoid all of the fish and shrimp paste then Thai cuisine can be pretty awesome for vegans and veggies!

      Unfortunately because we didn’t speak enough Vietnamese we never really got to have conversations with the market women but I’ve been told similar stories that they have very difficult lives. It’s situations like that where sometimes we’re happy to pay a little more than locals and know the money is going to help them.

      Where has been your favourite vegan destination?

    • Hey Anjali!
      I had a very similar experience to you! I also stayed in the French quarter and didn’t see any slaughtered animals or bad smells besides Durian fruit!! I also didnt find the fruit and vege markets either. I also saw the iterview with the women street vendors in the Women’smuseum and felt the same things you did! It’s as if i wrote that comment!

      The worst things I saw were in Hoi An at a night market – frogs on a stick (cooked) and chicken feet!

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